Organization And Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2019
|Organization and Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Organization And Accounting Policies||
VAALCO Energy, Inc. (together with its consolidated subsidiaries “we”, “us”, “our”, “VAALCO,” or the “Company”) is a Houston, Texas based independent energy company engaged in the acquisition, exploration, development and production of crude oil. As operator, we have production operations and conduct exploration activities in Gabon, West Africa. We have opportunities to participate in development and exploration activities in Equatorial Guinea, West Africa. As discussed further in Note 3 below, we have discontinued operations associated with our activities in Angola, West Africa.
Our consolidated subsidiaries are VAALCO Gabon (Etame), Inc., VAALCO Production (Gabon), Inc., VAALCO Gabon S.A., VAALCO Angola (Kwanza), Inc., VAALCO UK (North Sea), Ltd., VAALCO International, Inc., VAALCO Energy (EG), Inc., VAALCO Energy Mauritius (EG) Limited and VAALCO Energy (USA), Inc.
These condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited, but in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of results for the interim periods presented. All adjustments are of a normal recurring nature unless disclosed otherwise. Interim period results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for the full year.
These condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and do not include all the information and disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) for complete financial statements. They should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, which includes a summary of the significant accounting policies.
Restricted cash and abandonment funding – Restricted cash includes cash that is contractually restricted. Restricted cash is classified as a current or non-current asset based on its designated purpose and time duration. Current amounts in restricted cash at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively; each include an escrow amount representing bank guarantees for customs clearance in Gabon. Long term amounts at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 include a charter payment escrow for the floating, production, storage and offloading vessel (“FPSO”) offshore Gabon as discussed in Note 10. We invest restricted and excess cash in readily redeemable money market funds.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported within the condensed consolidated balance sheets to the amounts shown in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows:
We are required under the Exploration and Production Sharing Contract entitled “Etame Marin No. G4-160,” dated as of July 7, 1995, as amended, (the “Etame PSC”) for the Etame Marin block in Gabon to conduct abandonment studies to update the amounts needed to fund the eventual abandonment of the offshore wells, platforms and facilities on the Etame Marin block. The current abandonment study was completed in November 2018. This cash funding is reflected under “Other noncurrent assets” as “Abandonment funding” on our condensed consolidated balance sheets. Future changes to the anticipated abandonment cost estimate could change our asset retirement obligation and the amount of future abandonment funding payments. See Note 10 for further discussion.
Bad debts – Quarterly, we evaluate our accounts receivable balances to confirm collectability. When collectability is in doubt, we record an allowance against the accounts receivable, purchases of production and a corresponding income charge for bad debts, which appears in the “Bad debt recovery and other” line item of the condensed consolidated statements of operations. The majority of our accounts receivable balances are with our joint venture owners and the government of Gabon for reimbursable Value-Added Tax (“VAT”). Collection efforts, including remedies provided for in the contracts, are pursued to collect overdue amounts owed to us. Portions of our costs in Gabon (including our VAT receivable) are denominated in the local currency of Gabon, the Central African CFA Franc (“XAF”).
As of March 31, 2019, the outstanding VAT receivable balance, excluding the allowance for bad debt, was approximately $7.7 million ($2.6 million, net to VAALCO). As of March 31, 2019, the exchange rate was XAF 584.7 = $1.00.
For the three months ended March 31, 2019, we recorded a net recovery of $32 thousand related to the allowance for bad debt for VAT for which the government of Gabon has not reimbursed us. For the three months ended March 31, 2018, we recorded a net recovery of $0.1 million. The receivable amount, net of allowances, is reported as a non-current asset in the “Value added tax and other receivables” line item in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Because both the VAT receivable and the related allowances are denominated in XAF, the exchange rate revaluation of these balances into U.S. dollars at the end of each reporting period also has an impact on profit/loss. Such foreign currency gains (losses) are reported separately in the “Other, net” line item of the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
The following table provides a roll forward of the aggregate allowance:
Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities – We use derivative financial instruments to achieve a more predictable cash flow from oil production by reducing our exposure to price fluctuations. Our derivative instruments at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, consisted of oil swaps, which require us to pay a counterparty when the price of oil exceeds $74.00 per barrel, and where the price of oil falls below $74.00, we receive a payment from the counterparty.
We record balances resulting from commodity risk management activities in the condensed consolidated balance sheets as either assets or liabilities measured at fair value. Gains and losses from the change in fair value of derivative instruments and cash settlements on commodity derivatives are presented in the “Derivative instruments loss, net” line item located within the “Other income (expense)” section of the condensed consolidated statements of operations. See Note 8 for further discussion.
Fair Value – Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or the price paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Inputs used in determining fair value are characterized according to a hierarchy that prioritizes those inputs based on the degree to which they are observable. The three input levels of the fair-value hierarchy are as follows:
Level 1 – Inputs represent quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (for example, exchange-traded commodity derivatives).
Level 2 – Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly (for example, quoted market prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets or quoted market prices for identical assets or liabilities in markets not considered to be active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, or market-corroborated inputs).
Level 3 – Inputs that are not observable from objective sources, such as internally developed assumptions used in pricing an asset or liability (for example, an estimate of future cash flows used in our internally developed present value of future cash flows model that underlies the fair-value measurement).
Fair value of financial instruments – Our assets and liabilities include financial instruments such as cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, derivative assets, accounts payable and guarantee. As discussed further above, derivative assets and liabilities are measured and reported at fair value each period with changes in fair value recognized in net income. With respect to our other financial instruments included in current assets and liabilities, the carrying value of each financial instrument approximates fair value primarily due to the short-term maturity of these instruments. There were no transfers between levels for the three months ended March 31, 2019.
A liability for ARO is recognized in the period in which the legal obligations are incurred if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. The ARO liability reflects the estimated present value of the amount of dismantlement, removal, site reclamation, and similar activities associated with our oil and natural gas properties. We use current retirement costs to estimate the expected cash outflows for retirement obligations. Inherent in the present value calculation are numerous assumptions and judgments including the ultimate settlement amounts, inflation factors, credit-adjusted discount rates, timing of settlement, and changes in the legal, regulatory, environmental, and political environments. Initial recording of the ARO liability is offset by the corresponding capitalization of asset retirement cost recorded to oil and natural gas properties. To the extent these or other assumptions change after initial recognition of the liability, the fair value estimate is revised and the recognized liability adjusted, with a corresponding adjustment made to the related asset balance or income statement, as appropriate. Depreciation of capitalized asset retirement costs and accretion of asset retirement obligations are recorded over time. Depreciation is generally determined on a units-of-production basis for oil and natural gas production facilities. Accretion of interest increases the initial ARO liabilities over time until the liability matches the amount expected to settle the related retirement obligation. See Note 11 for further discussion.
Revenue recognition– Revenues from contracts with customers are generated from sales in Gabon pursuant to crude oil sales and purchase agreements. There is a single performance obligation (delivering oil to the delivery point, i.e. the connection to the customer’s crude oil tanker) that gives rise to revenue recognition at the point in time when the performance obligation event takes place. In addition to revenues from customer contracts, the Company has other revenues related to contractual provisions under the Etame PSC. The Etame PSC is not a customer contract. The terms of the Etame PSC includes provisions for payments to the government of Gabon for: royalties based on 13% of production at the published price and a shared portion of “Profit Oil” determined based on daily production rates, as well as a gross carried working interest of 7.5% (increasing to 10% beginning June 20, 2026) for all costs. For both royalties and Profit Oil, the Etame PSC provides that the government of Gabon may settle these obligations in-kind, i.e. taking crude oil barrels, rather than with cash payments. See Note 6 for further discussion.
Foreign currency transactions – The U.S. dollar is the functional currency of our foreign operating subsidiaries. Gains and losses on foreign currency transactions are included in income. Within the condensed consolidated statements of operations line item “Other income (expense)—Other, net,” we recognized a loss on foreign currency transactions of $0.2 million during the three months ended March 31, 2019. During the three months ended March 31, 2018, we recognized a gain on foreign currency transactions of $0.1 million.
Income taxes – Our tax provision is based on expected taxable income, statutory rates and tax planning opportunities available to us in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. The determination and evaluation of our tax provision and tax positions involves the interpretation of the tax laws in the various jurisdictions in which we operate and requires significant judgment and the use of estimates and assumptions regarding significant future events such as the amount, timing and character of income, deductions and tax credits. Changes in tax laws, regulations, agreements and tax treaties or our level of operations or profitability in each jurisdiction would impact our tax liability in any given year. We also operate in foreign jurisdictions where the tax laws relating to the oil and natural gas industry are open to interpretation which could potentially result in tax authorities asserting additional tax liabilities. While our income tax provision (benefit) is based on the best information available at the time, a number of years may elapse before the ultimate tax liabilities in the various jurisdictions are determined.
Judgment is required in determining whether deferred tax assets will be realized in full or in part. Management assesses the available positive and negative evidence to estimate if existing deferred tax assets will be utilized, and when it is estimated to be more-likely-than-not that all or some portion of specific deferred tax assets, such as net operating loss carry forwards or foreign tax credit carryovers, will not be realized, a valuation allowance must be established for the amount of the deferred tax assets that are estimated to not be realizable. Factors considered are earnings generated in previous periods, forecasted earnings and the expiration period of net operating loss carry forwards or foreign tax credit carryovers.
In certain jurisdictions, we may deem the likelihood of realizing deferred tax assets as remote where we expect that, due to the structure of operations and applicable law, the operations in such jurisdictions will not give rise to future tax consequences. For such jurisdictions, we have not recognized deferred tax assets. Should our expectations change regarding the expected future tax consequences, we may be required to record additional deferred taxes that could have a material effect on our consolidated financial position and results of operations. See Note 13 for further discussion.
The entire disclosure for organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef