Organization and Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
|Organization and Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Organization and Accounting Policies||
1. ORGANIZATION AND ACCOUNTING POLICIES
VAALCO Energy, Inc. (together with its consolidated subsidiaries “we”, “us”, “our”, “VAALCO,” or the “Company”) is a Houston, Texas based independent energy company engaged in the acquisition, exploration, development and production of crude oil. As operator, the Company has production operations and conducts exploration activities in Gabon, West Africa. The Company has opportunities to participate in development and exploration activities in Equatorial Guinea, West Africa. As discussed further in Note 3 below, the Company has discontinued operations associated with the Company’s activities in Angola, West Africa.
VAALCO’s consolidated subsidiaries are VAALCO Gabon (Etame), Inc., VAALCO Production (Gabon), Inc., VAALCO Gabon S.A., VAALCO Angola (Kwanza), Inc., VAALCO International, Inc., VAALCO Energy (EG), Inc., VAALCO Energy Mauritius (EG) Limited and VAALCO Energy (USA), Inc.
These condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited, but in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of results for the interim periods presented. All adjustments are of a normal recurring nature unless disclosed otherwise. Interim period results are not necessarily indicative of results expected for the full year.
These condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and do not include all the information and disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) for complete financial statements. They should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018, which includes a summary of the significant accounting policies.
Reclassifications – Certain reclassifications have been made to prior period amounts to conform to the current period presentation related to the presentation of stock based compensation and derivatives on the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of cash flows. These reclassifications had no material impact on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.
Restricted cash and abandonment funding – Restricted cash includes cash that is contractually restricted. Restricted cash is classified as a current or non-current asset based on its designated purpose and time duration. Current amounts in restricted cash at September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively, each include an escrow amount representing bank guarantees for customs clearance in Gabon. Long term amounts at September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018 include a charter payment escrow for the floating, production, storage and offloading vessel (“FPSO”) offshore Gabon as discussed in Note 11. The Company invests restricted and excess cash in readily redeemable money market funds.
The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported within the condensed consolidated balance sheets to the amounts shown in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows:
The Company is required, under the Exploration and Production Sharing Contract entitled “Etame Marin No. G4-160,” dated as of July 7, 1995, as amended, (the “Etame PSC”) for the Etame Marin block in Gabon to conduct abandonment studies to update the amounts needed to fund the eventual abandonment of the offshore wells, platforms and facilities on the Etame Marin block. The current abandonment study was completed in November 2018. This cash funding is reflected under “Other noncurrent assets” as “Abandonment funding” on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets. Future changes to the anticipated abandonment cost estimate could change the Company’s asset retirement obligation and the amount of future abandonment funding payments. See Note 13 for further discussion.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts – The Company’s accounts receivable results from sales of crude oil production and joint interest billings to its joint interest owners for their share of expenses on joint venture projects for which the Company is the operator as well as from the government of Gabon for reimbursable Value-Added Tax (“VAT”). Collection efforts, including remedies provided for in the contracts, are pursued to collect overdue amounts owed to the Company. Portions of the Company’s costs in Gabon (including the Company’s VAT receivable) are denominated in the local currency of Gabon, the Central African CFA Franc (“XAF”). Most of these receivables have payment terms of 30 days or less. The Company monitors the creditworthiness of the counterparties, and it has obtained credit enhancements from some parties in the form of parental guarantees or letters of credit. Joint owner receivables are secured through cash calls and other mechanisms for collection under the terms of the joint operating agreements.
The Company routinely assesses the recoverability of all material receivables to determine their collectability. The Company accrues a reserve on a receivable when, based on management’s judgment, it is probable that a receivable will not be collected and the amount of such reserve may be reasonably estimated. When collectability is in doubt, the Company records an allowance against the accounts receivable and a corresponding income charge for bad debts, which appears in the “Bad debt (recovery) expense” line item of the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
As of September 30, 2019, the outstanding VAT receivable balance, excluding the allowance for bad debt, was approximately $8.0 million ($2.7 million, net to VAALCO). As of September 30, 2019, the exchange rate was XAF 599.3 = $1.00. As of December 31, 2018, the exchange rate was XAF 573.0 = $1.00.
For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, the Company recorded a net (recovery) expense of $(5) thousand and $24 thousand, respectively, related to the allowance for bad debt for VAT for which the government of Gabon has not reimbursed us. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company recorded a net recovery of $0.2 million and $0.1 million, respectively. The receivable amount, net of allowances, is reported as a non-current asset in the “Value added tax and other receivables” line item in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. Because both the VAT receivable and the related allowances are denominated in XAF, the exchange rate revaluation of these balances into U.S. dollars at the end of each reporting period also has an impact on profit/loss. Such foreign currency gains (losses) are reported separately in the “Other, net” line item of the condensed consolidated statements of operations.
The following table provides a roll forward of the aggregate allowance:
Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities – The Company enters into crude oil hedging arrangements in an effort to mitigate the effects of commodity price volatility and enhance the predictability of cash flows relating to the marketing of a portion of our crude oil production. While these instruments mitigate the cash flow risk of future decreases in commodity prices, they may also curtail benefits from future increases in commodity prices.
The Company records balances resulting from commodity risk management activities in the condensed consolidated balance sheets as either assets or liabilities measured at fair value. Gains and losses from the change in fair value of derivative instruments and cash settlements on commodity derivatives are presented in the “Derivative instruments gain (loss), net” line item located within the “Other income (expense)” section of the condensed consolidated statements of operations. See Note 8 for further discussion.
Fair Value – Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or the price paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Inputs used in determining fair value are characterized according to a hierarchy that prioritizes those inputs based on the degree to which they are observable. The three input levels of the fair-value hierarchy are as follows:
Level 1 – Inputs represent quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (for example, exchange-traded commodity derivatives).
Level 2 – Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly (for example, quoted market prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets or quoted market prices for identical assets or liabilities in markets not considered to be active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, or market-corroborated inputs).
Level 3 – Inputs that are not observable from objective sources, such as internally developed assumptions used in pricing an asset or liability (for example, an estimate of future cash flows used in the Company’s internally developed present value of future cash flows model that underlies the fair-value measurement).
Fair value of financial instruments – The Company’s assets and liabilities include financial instruments such as cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, derivative assets, accounts payable and guarantee. As discussed above, derivative assets and liabilities are measured and reported at fair value each period with changes in fair value recognized in net income. With respect to the Company’s other financial instruments included in current assets and liabilities, the carrying value of each financial instrument approximates fair value primarily due to the short-term maturity of these instruments. There were no transfers between levels for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018.
Leases – In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued a new standard related to leases to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by requiring the recognition of right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. Most prominent among the changes in the standard is the recognition of ROU assets and lease liabilities by lessees for those leases previously classified as operating leases. Under the standard, disclosures are required to meet the objective of enabling users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The Company is also required to recognize and measure new leases at the adoption date and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment in the period of adoption using a modified retrospective approach, with certain practical expedients available.
The Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 842 effective January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective transition method through a cumulative-effect adjustment at the beginning of the first quarter of 2019. The Company has elected the package of practical expedients that allows the Company not to reassess (1) whether any expired or existing contracts as of the adoption date are or contain a lease, (2) lease classification for any expired or existing leases as of the adoption date and (3) initial direct costs for any existing leases as of the adoption date. The standard had an impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet but did not have an impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations or condensed consolidated statements of cash flows upon adoption and as a result, a cumulative-effect adjustment was not required. The most significant impact was the recognition of ROU assets and lease liabilities for operating leases. See Notes 2 and 12 for further discussion.
The Company determines whether an arrangement is a lease or contains an embedded lease at inception. At commencement, the Company records a ROU asset and lease liability for the lease on its consolidated balance sheet based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liability obligations represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. The Company has lease agreements that have both lease and non-lease components and has elected to separate these. Payments related to the lease component are included in the calculation of the lease liability; payments related to non-lease components are recorded consistent with other accounting guidance. The Company uses the implicit rate when readily determinable; however, as most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company estimated its incremental borrowing rate in accordance with the standard based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The ROU asset also includes any lease payments made prior to the commencement date, including initial direct costs and excluding lease incentives. The Company’s lease terms include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. For leases designated as operating leases, lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Asset retirement obligations (“ARO”) – The Company has significant obligations to remove tangible equipment and restore land or seabed to its natural state at the end of oil and natural gas production operations. The Company’s removal and restoration obligations are primarily associated with plugging and abandoning wells, removing and disposing of all or a portion of offshore oil and natural gas platforms, and capping pipelines. Estimating the future restoration and removal costs is difficult and requires management to make estimates and judgments. Asset removal technologies and costs are constantly changing, as are regulatory, political, environmental, safety, and public relations considerations.
A liability for ARO is recognized in the period in which the legal obligations are incurred if a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made. The ARO liability reflects the estimated present value of the amount of dismantlement, removal, site reclamation, and similar activities associated with the Company’s oil and natural gas properties. The Company uses current retirement costs to estimate the expected cash outflows for retirement obligations. Inherent in the present value calculation are numerous assumptions and judgments including the ultimate settlement amounts, inflation factors, credit-adjusted discount rates, timing of settlement, and changes in the legal, regulatory, environmental, and political environments. Initial recording of the ARO liability is offset by the corresponding capitalization of an asset retirement asset recorded to oil and natural gas properties. To the extent these or other assumptions change after initial recognition of the liability, the fair value estimate is revised and the recognized liability is adjusted, with a corresponding adjustment made to the related asset balance or income statement adjustment, as appropriate. Depreciation of the capitalized asset retirement costs and accretion of asset retirement obligations are recorded over time. Depreciation is generally determined on a units-of-production basis for oil and natural gas production facilities. Accretion of interest increases the initial ARO liabilities over time until the liability matches the amount expected to settle the related retirement obligation. See Note 13 for further discussion.
Revenue recognition– Revenues from contracts with customers are generated from sales in Gabon pursuant to crude oil sales and purchase agreements (“COSPA”). There is a single performance obligation (delivering oil to the delivery point, i.e. the connection to the customer’s crude oil tanker) that gives rise to revenue recognition at the point in time when the performance obligation event takes place. In addition to revenues from customer contracts, the Company has other revenues related to contractual provisions under the Etame PSC. The Etame PSC is not a customer contract. The terms of the Etame PSC includes provisions for payments to the government of Gabon for: royalties based on 13% of production at the published price and a shared portion of “Profit Oil” determined based on daily production rates, as well as a gross carried working interest of 7.5% (increasing to 10% beginning June 20, 2026) for all costs. For both royalties and Profit Oil, the Etame PSC provides that the government of Gabon may settle these obligations in-kind, i.e. taking crude oil barrels, rather than with cash payments. See Note 6 for further discussion.
Foreign currency transactions – The U.S. dollar is the functional currency of the Company’s foreign operating subsidiaries. Gains and losses on foreign currency transactions are included in income. Within the condensed consolidated statements of operations line item “Other income (expense) — Other, net,” the Company recognized a loss on foreign currency transactions of $0.1 million and $0.3 million, respectively, during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company recognized losses on foreign currency transactions of $0.0 million and $0.1 million, respectively.
Income taxes – The Company’s tax provision is based on expected taxable income, statutory rates and tax planning opportunities available to the Company in the various jurisdictions in which the Company operates. The determination and evaluation of the Company’s tax provision and tax positions involves the interpretation of the tax laws in the various jurisdictions in which the Company operates and requires significant judgment and the use of estimates and assumptions regarding significant future events such as the amount, timing and character of income, deductions and tax credits. Changes in tax laws, regulations, agreements and tax treaties or the Company’s level of operations or profitability in each jurisdiction would impact the Company’s tax liability in any given year. The Company also operates in foreign jurisdictions where the tax laws relating to the oil and natural gas industry are open to interpretation that could potentially result in tax authorities asserting additional tax liabilities. While the Company’s income tax provision (benefit) is based on the best information available at the time, a number of years may elapse before the ultimate tax liabilities in the various jurisdictions are determined.
Judgment is required in determining whether deferred tax assets will be realized in full or in part. Management assesses the available positive and negative evidence to estimate if existing deferred tax assets will be utilized, and when it is estimated to be more-likely-than-not that all or some portion of specific deferred tax assets, such as net operating loss carry forwards or foreign tax credit carryovers, will not be realized, a valuation allowance must be established for the amount of the deferred tax assets that are estimated to not be realizable. Factors considered are earnings generated in previous periods, forecasted earnings and the expiration period of net operating loss carry forwards or foreign tax credit carryovers.In certain jurisdictions, the Company may deem the likelihood of realizing deferred tax assets as remote where the Company expects that, due to the structure of operations and applicable law, the operations in such jurisdictions will not give rise to future tax consequences. For such jurisdictions, the Company has not recognized deferred tax assets. Should the Company’s expectations change regarding the expected future tax consequences, the Company may be required to record additional deferred taxes that could have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position and results of operations. See Note 16 for further discussion.
The entire disclosure for organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef